Archive tip!

I had, so I thought, all I needed. A pile of photograph albums, my camera set up as a copy stand and a new scanner that could take film and prints. On gently peeling back the sticky film on the album page I soon discovered it would be more of a challenge than I had imagined. Having been in the albums in some cases for more than forty years the images were stuck fast! I tried some gentle tugging but it was obvious they were going to tear if I applied too much pressure.

After a bit of a web search I found this great little video from the Smithsonian. I wanted to capture it here because it was so useful and to remind me they offer a range of advice. The answer it seems is dental floss, which is handy because it is also a tool I also use in my food photography (it’s great for cutting soft cheese – the non-minty version obviously!).

It takes a little while to get the hang of but works a treat and I now have my photos released from their lifelong home.




Working towards assignment two

I have been doing a lot of reading and research for Assignment two and it felt like I needed to balance that out with some image making and started sketching some different ideas about what form the assignment might take. I have decided that it will consist of a series of diptychs with a family album image on one side and an image on the other side that links to the stories of the Australian child migrants.

One pairing I thought of was my family images alongside the Australian flora and fauna that must have seemed so alien to children already confused and frightened about what was happening to them. I remember how different the environment seemed in new South Wales and in Queensland from the depths of Surrey. I can only imagine what these children thought. Initially I thought they would be straight photographs but I decided there was a danger that it might look like a travel brochure.

Like assignment one I spent some time thinking about what it was that was drawing me into this project, why did it feel important to try and address? I decided that what I was trying to uncover was – ‘what must it have felt like as a child of five, six or seven to have arrived in this strange land with everything being so different, a cruel version of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland?’ For me it was a kind of Wonderland but I had my family with me and we knew at some point we would be going back to England as a group.

This led me to thinking about more abstract images that might evoke emotions. So having collected some found images of Australian flora I experimented with filters and the warp tool. What started to emerge were images that had softness but also some sharp edges. They were no longer recognisable as the original images, perhaps symbolic of the dislocation caused, I also felt they were starting to work better in exploring feelings of loss, pain, confusion and abandonment.

I am not sure if they will work alongside the family album images but will test that out when I pull everything together for the assignment. If nothing else I have found a technique that I think I will keep developing. They have had a very positive response from people I have shared them with.


I couldn’t decide whether to name them or not so for now they are just called Lost, I may revert to giving them only numbers to reflect the loss of identity of the children.




Project Three: The digital family album

Exercise 2.3 (Digital Image & Culture, pg. 51)

In your exercise for this section you’ll produce a piece of work that explores the family album and its iconography.

Produce a series of six photographs (these can be photomontage, staged photography, work using found images, work including images from your own family archives, etc.) which reference the family album in some way.

As I recorded in my learning log I have not looked at our family albums for some time. I suspect there are several reasons for this:

  • We don’t have children so their role as a social, historical and communicative tool is perhaps lessened
  • They are now associated with death and loss as much as life and celebration
  • We tend to share through social media and keep our images only in digital format

I decided I would therefore reacquaint myself with some old friends and use our family albums for this exercise. I thought it would also be useful as preparation for assignment two. I didn’t have a predetermined theme or concept and decided I would just start working through the albums and see what they suggested.

I was taken completely by surprise when the first album I opened was full of negatives, some 35mm and a number in a square format, a mix of both colour and black and white. Some of them I thought I recognised but others I wasn’t sure of the content. There are too many to have them developed commercially without knowing what I might be getting so I decided to try and digitise a few myself to see what happened.

At the time I didn’t have a very high quality scanner so did some online research and found a negative scanning hack using silvered card. Using this and Photoshop I was able to process some of the negatives. After inverting the images they all came out with a blue hue that I decided not to adjust, I also didn’t clean up the images in any way. Linked to some of the background reading I have been doing I recognised a quality in these images that spoke to me of memory and personal history, the fact that the images are slightly obscured and faint felt important in conveying their age and possible reliability as documentary recordings.

I don’t remember these particular instances as I was obviously too young but I do recognise my Mum and other relatives, which enables me to locate them within my family’s history. That said their faces are not in sharp focus so interpreting them is still left slightly open, I know it is me because I am told it is me but I do not have personal recollection of the events. I’m sure this opens up some interesting existential questions.

As part of my research for this exercise I looked at a very wide range of other photographers (I imagine there are many others!):

  • Lorraine O’Grady – Miscegenated family album
  • Larry Sultan – Pictures from Home
  • Sally Mann
  • Mitch Epstein – Family Business
  • Tina Barney – Theatre of Manners
  • Elinor Carucci – Mother
  • Doug Dubois – All the Days and Nights
  • Nan Goldin – the Ballad of Sexual Dependency and other works
  • Richard Billingham – Ray’s a Laugh
  • Gillian Laub – Family Matters
  • Alessandra Sanguinetti – The Adventures of Guille and Belinda and the Enigmatic Meaning of their Dreams
  • Angela Strasshelms – Left Behind
  • Tierney Gearon – The Mother Project
  • Chris Verene – Galesberg Series
  • Briony Campbell – The Dad Project
  • Angela Kelly – Sundays at Sea
  • Eugene Richards – Dorchester Days
  • Shizico Yi – Family Album on Loss and Love
  • Jo Spence – Beyond the Family Album
  • Ralph Eugene Meatyard – The Family Album of Lucybelle Crater

It was interesting to see those who used their own family album to explore essentially autobiographical issues and those for whom it represents a site of activism; a space to explore and expose the politics of representation. It is also noteworthy to see those photographers, who have, created family albums as part of their oeuvre rather than using those taken as snapshots by other family members. In researching just a few photographers it is clear that this is an extensive field in its own right and includes approaches from documentary to composite; from constructed to found images.

The artist that particularly caught my attention as I was researching, someone I hadn’t come across before, was Bohumil Stepan and his ‘Family Oddities.’

Their surreal quality and quirky humour really appealed and surfaced something interesting for me in terms of the relationship between the family snaps and the oral history that often accompanies them. I decided I would start with some stories and then use found images to create a series of portraits that linked to my family album. I came up with a number of family traits and myths and created the following characters (scroll over the image for captions).

What started out as something playful has really made me think about the relationship between the visual and oral tradition, and the fact that family albums are partial tellings. For example, the traditional image of the family dog may tell us they were regarded as significant enough to photograph but it says little of their backstory, which is often only known to the immediate family.

Photographer links:

The full document for Bohumil Stepan is out of print but it can be seen here as a PDF (as featured by Design Observer)

Bohumil Stepan’s Family Album of Oddities_ Design Observer



Archive Fever: Photography between history and the monument

Mindmap of key concepts in Archive Fever essay

Archive Fever Mindmap

This is a very full essay that covers a lot of ground and makes some significant points about the nature of the photographic archive and the role of artists as archivist. I wasn’t sure how best to tackle it so in the end I decided on a mindmap as that helped me capture what I felt the key points were and I could see an overview of the whole essay. The irony of having to categorise and create a typology is not lost on me! I suspect that seeing the Archive Fever exhibition would have given additional context but as that was not possible I have worked with the text and researching some of the photographers individually.

I take from the conclusions the point about the archive acting as a site of suture between past and present, event and image, document and monument. This has helped me think differently about the archive and that it potentially has a more dynamic role than I might have imagined. The mindmap also allows me to keep coming back and revisiting my interpretations.

Two points of interest emerged for me in my reading of Archive fever:

  • The notion of artists reading archives ‘against the grain’ and in so doing creating a new archival structure
  • The relationship between ethnography and the archive and the exploration/question of cultural meanings

Project 1 The Artist as Curator: Research Point 1

Read Sharon Boothroyd’s interview with Joachim Schmid and listen to him talk about his collection and curation of discarded vernacular photography.

I am an artist because there is no other description for what I do. Joachim Schmid

Joachim Schmid (b.1955) has spent more than 30 years working on the boundaries between photography, art, curation, archivist and editorial practices. He has built his work through collecting vernacular images, initially as hard copy through flea markets and latterly online sources such as Flickr.

Schmid’s source materials would but for him , disappear into the physical or virtual trash heap…Schmid’s ‘anti museum’ of forgotten, lost and disused photographs challenges us to reconsider not only our assumptions of photographic worth, but also how photography and collecting function as cultural practices. (Heffley)

Schmid has created nearly 100 print on demand books, as well as many exhibitions, based around the themes and patterns he finds in the images he collects – from food to hands. He suggests that in looking at such a volume of images it would be nearly impossible not to notice recurring themes. (Boothroyd, 2013) Inherent in his work is also the notion of temporality. When he was collecting physical artefacts the images he had a sense of being up to a generation behind. Now the images are available in real time but such is their volume it is impossible to keep up with the flow.

It is clear that Schmid has been developing a commentary on contemporary cultural practices in relation to photography.

Schmid’s work asks us to reconsider the so called photographic canon, which depends on weighty notions of history, authenticity and authorship. (Heffley)

In doing so he is not exercising judgement on the makers of the photographs, whereas others may have been more critical of the apparent repetition in vernacular photography, as Schmid says ‘it is not my job to tell people what to do and what not to do.’ When he was asked why he thought we have a tendency to take the same photographs, he responds simply, because ‘it works.’ It is rooted in a desire to show all is well in our lives, regardless of the fact that we know life is infinitely more complicated.

Through his mixing and reconfiguration we are forcibly reminded of how plastic today’s world of image production, circulation and consumption can be. (Heffley)

Helpfully, Schmid has shared his processes widely.

References and citations:

Boothroyd, S. (2013). An interview with Joachim Schmid.   Retrieved 3rd December 2017, from

Heffley, D. R. Photography as Urban Archaeology: The Practice of Joachim Schmid.   Retrieved 3rd December 2017, from


Ephemeral: Nicola Onion

Project 2: Exercise 2.2 (Digital Image and Culture, pg. 45)

Write 500 words in your learning log on a piece of work by one contemporary artist-photographer who uses the archive as a source material.

Photographs are essential to recording moments in life; they freeze time so you may relive your memories forever. However, you can not actually freeze time or memory. (Onions, 2014)

I had a look at artists involved with GRAIN and was immediately struck by the work of a young photographer, Nicola Onions. Graduating from Birmingham Institute of Art and Design in 2014 with a BA (Hons) in Visual Communication (Photography and Moving Image), she describes herself as having a passion for experimentation and working with different mediums and processes. She has self-published five photobooks, featured in a number of group exhibitions and won the GRAIN photography hub graduate award.

‘Ephemeral’ is a poignant, delicate and personal project. Following the death of her grandmother, who suffered from Alzheimer’s, Onions started a project based on memory. It is focused on her grandfather and his life following the loss of his wife and his own Alzheimer’s. The aptly titled ‘Ephemeral’ is an ‘extension of my focus on memory. I use ice in a conceptual way to visualise just how temporary memories are.’ (Onions, 2014)

I leafed through family albums, and discovered our family archive, using this to visualise memory loss, by changing the image, making them unrecognisable. I showed my Grandfather’s worsening condition through his eyes, so everyone could understand the horror that is dementia, and memory loss.

Many if not most of us will have some experience of dementia through our families and friends. The statistics from the Alzheimer’s’ Society are revealing:

  • There are 850,000 people with dementia in the UK, with numbers set to rise to over 1 million by 2025. This will soar to 2 million by 2051.
  • 225,000 will develop dementia this year, that’s one every three minutes.
  • 1 in 6 people over the age of 80 have dementia.
  • 70 per cent of people in care homes have dementia or severe memory problems.

I recognise what Onion refers to as the ‘horror of Alzheimer’s’ and it seems to have become a topic increasingly tackled by photographers (Jean Jameson, Maya Daniels, Christopher Nunn, and the exhibition The Other Place, to name a few). Many have used a documentary style but I was struck by the impact of Onion’s more conceptual approach.

I use ice in a conceptual way, to visualise just how temporary his memories are. By creating a unique piece of art, that only remains for minutes, and can only be frozen by the use of a camera, I communicate the idea that not only is life transient, but so are the memories of my Grandfather. The ice obstructs the image encased, manipulating the memory, and as it melts, it shows the memory fading away. I also used this process to convey my feelings about the disease, and my own existence. (Onions, 2014)

The ice is obscuring each small photograph and as it transforms to a liquid state it interacts with the enclosed image. Warping, fading, distressing what is found inside. Something that particularly appealed following my recent experiments with water. All that remains of the original artwork is the photographic record; it almost represents an archive of an archive. It also raises interesting questions about photography’s relationship to memory as well as the fears that the thought of a fading memory can provoke.

Selfhood hinges on our ability to order memory, and connect a set of experiences to form a coherent autobiography of who we were and how we became the person we are now.(Leadbeater, 2014)

References and citations:

Leadbeater, C. (2014). The Disremembered.   Retrieved 30th November 2017, Aeon, from

Onions, N. (2014). Ephemeral.   Retrieved 29th November 2017, from


Archive Noises: Fontcuberta

In his speech of 1839, to the Academy of Sciences and Academy of Arts in Paris, Francois Arago introduced the daguerreotype and outlined that in his view photography would impinge on two realms of human experience – perception and memory.

This seems to have been incredibly prescient and as Fontcuberta (2014) suggests we are now moving from a period where the custodians of the history of photography were curators, critics and historians to now being photographers, designers and artists. This is not an issue that rests at an individual or community level alone but is something that has been seen in whole nation states. This is vividly described in the post-Franco experience in Spain.

…we are talking about an archive, a repository of memory, and the memory in question is one that half a century before had fractured the country into two halves, leaving deep and lasting wounds that have not been healed. (Fontcuberta, 2014: 171)

In highlighting the issues of the institutionalised memory it is suggested that there is a need for a ‘deconsecrating.’ Joachim Schmid is suggested as an example of this move away from the institution and three of his projects are cited as examples:

  • Masterpieces of Photography. The Fricke and Schmid Collection
  • Archive
  • Statics

Schmid perhaps controversially suggests that all the photographs to be taken have already been taken (a similar view is echoed by Kessels) and as such he calls for a recycling.

…we must recycle existing images because the creative act has shifted to identifying and taking advantage of exquisite garbage. (Fontcuberta, 2014: 175)

As an interesting side note to this I came across this camera designed to ensure you can’t take a photograph where others have already been taken – camera restricta (Schmitt, 2017) I’m still not entirely sure it isn’t a spoof but fascinating that it is raised as an issue!

A further issue that is highlighted in the chapter is that of the ‘photograph as information and as object.’ once again this raises the question of photography’s relationship with reality.  I also wonder if the notion of the photograph as object is shifting as the technologies of production change and the process moves from its origins in glass plates to pixels (and whatever follows). There have been some suggestions that in 10 years the current and arguably the most photographed generation ever will have lost most of their photographs because of digital format changes). (Yost, 2015)

“We are nonchalantly throwing all of our data into what could become an information black hole without realising it. We digitise things because we think we will preserve them, but what we don’t understand is that unless we take other steps, those digital versions may not be any better, and may even be worse, than the artefacts that we digitised,” Cerf told the Guardian. “If there are photos you really care about, print them out.” (Sample, 2015)

Throughout history artists have tried to challenge the authoritative versions of the past. Louise Bourgeois saw it as a liberation to be able to free ourselves from the past. In exploring the work of Schmid what surfaces is the suggestion that our ‘vision is always partial.’ Perhaps Schmid is showing that the fragments are needed to show the image overall. It reminds me of what in narrative terms is described as terse tellings, these are ‘succinct or abbreviated stories that leave scope for the hearer’s imagination.’ (Boje, 1991)

The points I have taken from this chapter are threefold:

  • The archive is potentially boundless and on that basis unknowable
  • That there is a space between memory and forgetting in which the archive can ply a part
  • We ought to be privileging intelligence and creativity over the accretion of information

I am left with a slight confusion at the end of the chapter, and it may be a bit of a tangent, which is about how Fontcuberta sees the relationship between data and information.  In Cybernetics Ackoff introduced the DIKW (Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom) hierarchy model which has tended to suggest there are layers of filtration with data as the starting point. Maybe the white noise of the archive is the data and not the knowledge?

The Rock

Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in the information?

T.S.Eliot, 1934

References and citations:

Boje, D. M. (1991). The Storytelling Organization: A Study of Story Performance in an Office-Supply Firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(1), 106-126.

Fontcuberta, J. (2014). Pandora’s camera: Photogr@ phy after photography: Mack.

Sample, I. (2015). Google boss warns of ‘forgotten century’ with email and photos at risk Retrieved 1st December 2017, from

Schmitt, P. (2017). Camera Restricta: A disobedient tool for taking unique photographs.   Retrieved 1st December 2017, from

Yost, M. (2015). The Most Photographed Generation Will Have No Pictures in 10 Years!   Retrieved 11th December 2017, 2017, from



Project One: The Artist as Curator

Exercise 2.1 (Digital Image and Culture pg: 41)

Bring together a series of 12 images (a typology) in which a particular motif appears again and again. You may use physical found images or images found online. Select an appropriate format to display the images.

Look at the work of Corinne Vionnet and her series ‘Photo Opportunities.’

Part One

Something had obviously been nestling in the back of my mind; I’m sure to do with the current political context and the recent issues of the harassment of women in the workplace. Somehow this manifested itself as looking back to the votes for women campaigns.

I think I’d assumed that there was probably an archive somewhere with lots of images of suffragettes and the suffrage movement. Having looked through a number it seemed it wasn’t that straightforward and while several images kept reappearing like the woman with her two children; getting to twelve was more difficult than I thought it would be. In the end it was through Pinterest I was able to find the most images through a single source.

Twelve images of suffragette votes for women placards

Votes for women

I was particularly interested in the ‘Votes for Women’ placards and sashes as the common motif rather than necessarily the women themselves. In all the images they are prominent and being clearly brandished by the women. I had looked at protest banners in a previous course and found that there is a tendency to use all upper case typography and was surprised to find that although these images are much older the same tradition applies. Just by way of experimentation and because I had already looked at Corinne Vionnet’s work in the last section I decided to create a single layered version. I think there is something quite melancholic about it.

Different images of votes for women placards overlaid

Votes for Women – layered

Having collected those images I was curious about where the campaigns led, not so much from the perspective of women voting but of women then moving into the political domain and taking up roles as MPs.  So I searched for the first women MPs and again found a fairly disparate result using Google images. It was interesting to note how many of those that came up are held behind a paywall with the likes of Getty Images, Alamy or other picture agencies. I found this quite a challenge as these women are part of our shared history and while I respect the rights of the photographers it really posed an interesting question for me about who has access to what kinds of archives.

Portaits of the first 12 English Women MPs

The first twelve women Members of Parliament

The motif of being a female MP might not be immediately evident; I suspect on looking at them they might appear more as society women or possibly writers/actors. They are all single headshots, some looking to camera and some not but I find there is a sense of consistency between them. It may just be that they seem to have an era in common.

These must have been quite extraordinary women for their time and I was a bit saddened to find there doesn’t seem to be a single repository that has their images together. I was eventually able to find all twelve by searching for the women individually, having found their names through the House of Commons Library ‘Women Members of Parliament’ list.

Small portraits of women standing for the 1932 General Election

Women standing for the 1923 General Election

At the same time I was researching the women MPs I found a ready-made typology from the 1923 general election. It was interesting to note the similarities between this and the images I had collected. Most are head and shoulder portraits with the exception of the two full length shots. I’m sure they say a lot about the nature of portraiture at the time.

Part Two

Having been surprised at how much research I had to do find the images in part one I thought I would repeat the exercise with something more mundane. I was also reflecting on some of my reading around Joachim Schmid and the nature of the post photographic era. Looking back to one of my earlier exercises I decided to search for Spaghetti in the open access archive Pixabay. This immediately generated 375 images. A similar search in Adobe Stock showed 172,944 results, Alamy showed 83,735 and Google Images also found thousands. Even restricting my search to ‘Spaghetti AND fork’ it was easy to find a set of 12 images on Pixabay alone.

12 photos of spaghetti dishes in a grid

Spaghetti with fork

I’m not too sure what this comparison tells me at this point but it was fascinating to see the contrast between searching for popular and historic images.




Assignment One: Reflections on my tutor’s feedback

Overall comments

Starting a new course always feels like a step into another territory. It might look familiar but you never quite know what you’re going to find. Coming from my last level 1 course, Graphic Design One, I am particularly interested to see how my photographic work develops from here. I am keen to keep experimenting and working in cross-disciplinary forms. I am hopeful that Digital Image and Culture will allow me to do that. My tutor’s feedback seems to confirm this will be the case.

This is a very good submission.  You draw inspiration from a range of sources, photography, fine art, poetry, psychology, and researching that wider context, different forms, historical and theoretical, will always open up our ideas during the development stages of any project.

Feedback on assignment

As I mentioned in my learning log, I think my GD1 experience has helped me find a way of working that allows me to explore ideas and not fix my approach too soon. I have found this quite liberating because I no longer worry about whether I have found the ‘right’ idea. Now I just try something out and see what happens, if it works great, if not I move on. This has been recognised by my tutor.

This is a very good set of images, one that meets the aims of the brief, but more importantly reveals your sense of exploration and tenacity in finding a way to articulate your initial concept… It would have been enough for some, perhaps to finish their exploration at this point, but you decided to push this further reworking the images to look for something ‘simpler and cleaner’ with a stronger emotional connection, one that reflected your original concept.  This worked very well, with eight, less figurative and more graphic abstracts.

My tutor’s observations about the difference between the final set of physical and digital collages are very helpful, particularly his comment that the combination of image and title may not be read in the way I had intended.

…it might be hard for a viewer to relate the emotional interpretation in the title to the image

He does suggest a large scale print might offer a more immersive experience that could relate to the emotional impact I was looking for. I did wonder whether they should have titles or just be numbered, but numbers felt too distant and abstract. There is also something to consider in having made two of them more sculptural, I am not sure they translated well to an image on screen as you lose the physical effect of the overlaid ripple.

I wrestled a little to start with about how the digital images would be different from the physical collages, I wanted them to build on but be distinctive from the initial set. I was very pleased to read that my tutor felt this set worked on a different level.

The following three, ‘Serenity, Peace, and Insight’ offer something different, a subtle rendition of the subject matter and a greater fusion of the individual elements to bring a dream-like quality to the images. The desaturation of the individual layers is held together by the superimposition of the natural elements, not quite a reflection, but something intangible as though it’s a moment between two images – like a transition in a film.

It is helpful to read his suggestion to look further at enhancing the idea and impression/illusion of depth which I will explore further. I also like the notion of moments between frames, something I’d also like to work on more.  The feedback has introduced me to Daisuke Yokota and Haruki Sugimoto both of which are photographers I had not come across before and I am very intrigued by.

Coursework, research & learning log

I am pleased that my coursework and learning log have been well received and that I am working along the right lines. It is also good to know the structure of the learning log is straightforward. I will look at why the thumbnails on the visual diary aren’t showing. I also note the suggestion to engage with the OCA forum. I do look from time to time but often have to wrestle browser issues in accessing it for some reason. I do regularly engage with the various OCA photography and visual communications Facebook Groups so I am engaging with wider groups than just TVG.

I note the guidance for my next assignment and am already looking at family archives. I am going to discuss a theme further with my tutor as I have some ideas I want to explore based on my childhood travels to Australia.

Digital Image in Photographic Culture: Algorithmic photography and the crisis of representation

Photo made of digital tiles

Photo mosaic algorithm



This chapter seems like a denser read than some of the other recommendations to date and as a result this feels like an initial response as I am sure it will warrant re-reading in future. It is thought provoking in terms of exploring how we regard the digital photograph and the paradigms that have shaped our relationship to photographs.

What is being offered to the viewer of Titanic is life reduced to a sequence of frozen moments: bound to the world of emerging technological complexity, but ultimately detached from expressivity and spontaneity.(Rubinstein & Sluis, 2013: 23)

Rubenstein and Sluis (2013) draw comparisons between the photographic records in the scene of Titanic and those in Memento. In one, Titanic, the photographs are placed in such a way as to represent a linear life, in the other they carry multiple narratives and temporalities.

But Leonard has also created his own clues with what Esther M. Sternberg dubs “a meticulous artificial memory system”. His main problem is his confusion of photographs with objects. Whatever their status as tangible things, they are primarily vessels of information that carries little in the way of inalienable factual weight, despite the assertion in the tattoo that reads “CAMERA NEVER LIES”. (North, 2009)

This raises the interesting notion of the photograph facing in two directions at the same time. It is concerned with both the objects and subjects it captures as well as pointing ‘towards photography’s own conditions of manufacturing.’(Rubinstein & Sluis, 2013: 25)

This brings to the fore a discussion of the influence of Cartesian thought, at the time of mind/body split, images move from metaphorical and aesthetic to rational and objective truth. Something that Memento clearly plays with in its narrative structure. This positions photography as an ‘offshoot of objectivity and empiricism.’ and in doing so it seems to me to place it within a positivist paradigm and realist ontology, something that I have never accorded to photography and something I feel has always been in question even before digital.

…photographs are first and foremost bound to the world itself rather than to cultural systems (Rubinstein & Sluis, 2013: 25)

The chapter seems to challenge this relationship and belief as it moves towards algorithmic processes and data. Now we have a process that serve to create images that for the most part (but not always) create pictures that look like what we know as ‘photographs.’


North, D. (2009). Memento: “The Camera Never Lies”.   Retrieved 1st November 2017, from

Rubinstein, D., & Sluis, K. (2013). The Digital Image in Photographic Culture. The photographic image in digital culture, 22-40.